INTERNAL
MEDICINE
(GLOSSARY)

NEXUS VETERINARY INTERNAL MEDICINE CENTER (Glossary)
Internal Medicine specialists are certified by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Internists provide advanced diagnostics and care for a multitude of conditions, both acute and chronic, including pets with multiple coexisting diseases.

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AREAS OF EXPERTISE
Gastroenterology and Hepatology
This includes diagnosis and management of disorders of the stomach, intestines, pancreas, and liver. Common disorders include inflammatory bowel disease, protein-losing enteropathy, megaesophagus and other esophageal disorders, chronic pancreatitis, chronic hepatitis, copper storage disorders, and more. 
Hematology
Hematology is the diagnosis and management of disorders of blood cells, coagulation, and bone marrow. These may include congenital disorders such as Hemophilia, or acquired disorders such as autoimmune conditions. 
Autoimmune Disorders
There are many immune-mediated disorders that can affect multiple body systems. These most commonly include immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA), immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP or IMTP), vasculitis, and more.
Infectious Diseases
This includes the diagnosis and management of both common and unusual infectious diseases. These include tickborne illness such as Lyme disease or Erlichia, leptospirosis, fungal disease, and others.
Nephrology and Urology
This is the diagnosis and management of diseases of the kidney and urinary system including both structural and functional disorders. Diseases may be congenital or acquired and common diseases include chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections, urinary stones and ureteral disease, and protein-losing nephropathy. 
Endocrine Disorders
This is the diagnosis and management of diseases related to hormone imbalances. Common endocrine diseases include diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, Cushing's disease, Addison's disease, and calcium disorders. 
Respiratory Disease
This is the diagnosis and management of diseases of the nose/upper airways, trachea/larynx, and lungs. This includes a wide variety of disorders including chronic rhinitis, nasopharyngeal stenosis, laryngeal paralysis, tracheal collapse, chronic bronchitis, feline asthma and bronchitis, and more.
DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
GI Scopes
These procedures involve the use of a flexible endoscope (a long tube with a camera on the end) to visualize and biopsy the inside of the first and last parts of the intestinal tract including the esophagus, stomach, duodenum (first part of the small intestine), ileum (last part of the small intestine) and colon.
Rhinoscopy
These procedures involve the use of a flexible or rigid endoscope to visualize and biopsy the inside of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Rhinoscopy may also be used during therapeutic interventions such as treatment of fungal infections in the nasal cavity.
Bronchoscopy and Airway Sampling
This procedure uses a flexible endoscope to visualize the inside of the airways including the larynx, trachea, and lungs. It allows for targeted sampling of the lungs for various types of disorders.
Bone Marrow
This procedure involves taking a sample of bone marrow for analysis. This is most often used in the investigation of low cell counts including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. 
Balloon Dilation (Starting later this year)
Balloon dilation is used most often in the management of esophageal strictures and nasopharyngeal stenosis. This involves the use of special equipment to dilate narrowed openings.
Advanced Imaging
Advanced imaging allows for a more thorough look at internal organs and provides advantages over x-rays for many disorders.
Dr. Cara Steele.jpeg

Cara Steele, DVM,

Diplomate, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Read more about Dr. Cara Steele.